Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology

Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology

Saturday, 07 / 04 / 2020

Articles

Abstract

Abstract

Background and Aims: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common in patients with cirrhosis but the incidence is heterogeneous among studies. We performed a meta-analysis to describe the incidence of AKI and its impact on patient mortality in patients with cirrhosis. We also evaluated the admission variables predicting development of AKI.

Methods: A systematic search of various databases was performed up to November 2018. Meta-analyses were performed using random effects models.

Results:Of 18,474 patients with cirrhosis from 30 selected studies, 5,648 developed AKI, with a pooled incidence of 29% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 28-30%, I2 of 99%). In-hospital mortality assessed in eight studies was six-fold higher among AKI patients, as compared to those without AKI (odds ratio [OR] 6.72, 95% CI: 3.47-13, p<0.0001, I2 of 70%). Three studies on patients admitted to intensive care showed about six-fold higher mortality among AKI patients (OR 5.90, 95% CI: 3.21-10.85, p>0.0001). Mortality remained significantly high, at days 30 and 90 and even at 1-year follow up after development of AKI. Of 12 admission variables analyzed, model for end-stage liver disease score, Child-Pugh-Turcotte stage C, presence of ascites, and presence of sepsis/septic shock were statistically significant risk factors for AKI.

Conclusions:AKI occurred in about 29% of patients with cirrhosis and is associated with a six-fold increased risk of in-hospital mortality. Mortality remained high even in long-term follow-up of 1 year. Patients at risk for AKI development can be recognized at admission. Prospective studies are needed to develop strategies for improving outcome of these patients.

Keywords

Acute kidney injury, Cirrhosis, Mortality, Outcomes

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