Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology

Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology

Saturday, 05 / 30 / 2020

Articles

Abstract

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a systemic disorder with a complex multifactorial pathogenesis and heterogenous clinical manifestations. NAFLD, once believed to be an innocuous condition, has now become the most common cause of chronic liver disease in many countries worldwide. NAFLD is already highly prevalent in the general population, and owing to a rising incidence of obesity and diabetes mellitus, the incidence of NAFLD and its impact on global healthcare are expected to increase in the future. A subset of patients with NAFLD develops progressive liver disease leading to cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and liver failure. NAFLD has emerged as one of the leading causes of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma in recent years. Moreover, HCC can occur in NAFLD even in absence of cirrhosis. Compared with the general population, NAFLD increases the risk of liver-related, cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. NAFLD is bidirectionally associated with metabolic syndrome. NAFLD increases the risk and contributes to aggravation of the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, and chronic kidney disease. In addition, NAFLD is linked to colorectal polyps, polycystic ovarian syndrome, osteoporosis, obstructive sleep apnea, stroke, and various extrahepatic malignancies. Extended resection of steatotic liver is associated with increased risk of liver failure and mortality. There is an increasing trend of NAFLD-related cirrhosis requiring liver transplantation, and the recurrence of NAFLD in such patients is almost universal. This review discusses the growing burden of NAFLD, its outcomes, and adverse associations with various diseases.

Keywords

NAFLD, NASH, Metabolic, Outcome, Association

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