Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology

Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology

Monday, 03 / 30 / 2020

Articles

Minimal Hepatic Encephalopathy in Indians: Psychometric Hepatic Encephalopathy Score and Inhibitory Control Test for Diagnosis and Rifaximin or Lactulose for Its Reversal

ORIGINAL ARTICLE

Minimal Hepatic Encephalopathy in Indians: Psychometric Hepatic Encephalopathy Score and Inhibitory Control Test for Diagnosis and Rifaximin or Lactulose for Its Reversal

Vinay B. Pawar*, Ravindra G. Surude, Nikhil Sonthalia, Vinay Zanwar, Samit Jain, Qais Contractor and Pravin M. Rathi

Department of Gastroenterology, Topiwala National Medical College and BYL Ch Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

*Correspondence to: Vinay B. Pawar, Department of Gastroenterology, Topiwala National Medical College and BYL Ch Hospital, Dr. A.L Nair Road, Mumbai, Maharashtra 400008, India. Tel: +22-23021639, E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology 2019;7(4):304-312 DOI: 10.14218/JCTH.2017.00037
Received: June 4, 2017 Accepted: February 14, 2019 Published online: November 27, 2019

Abstract

Background and Aims: Psychometric hepatic encephalopathy score (PHES) is used widely for diagnosis of minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE). This prospective study aimed to determine the utility of the inhibitory control test (ICT) for the diagnosis of MHE. Additionally, the efficacy of rifaximin and lactulose for reversal of MHE was evaluated.

Methods: A total of 180 eligible cirrhotic patients underwent testing for MHE. When PHES was ≤ −5 and ICT lures were ≥ 14, MHE was diagnosed. The 108 patients with MHE were randomized to three groups for treatment with either lactulose, rifaximin, or placebo. Treatment outcomes were measured at the end of 3 months.

Results: The 108 patients with MHE diagnosed by PHES and/or ICT accounted for 60%. The diagnosis of MHE was made by both ICT and PHES positivity in 56 patients, by abnormal ICT and normal PHES in 37 patients, and by abnormal PHES and normal ICT in 15 patients. For diagnosis of MHE, ICT had sensitivity of 78.87%, specificity of 66.06% with 60.22% positive predictive value and 82.76% negative predictive value. An area under the curve value of 0.724 (95% CI: 0.653–0.788) was obtained for diagnosis of MHE. Reversal of MHE was seen in 71.42%, 70.27% and 11.11% of patients in the rifaximin, lactulose and placebo arms (p < 0.001). Rifaximin showed better tolerability compared to lactulose.

Conclusions: For the diagnosis of MHE, ICT is a simple tool but has lower sensitivity and better specificity than PHES. Rifaximin is as efficacious as lactulose in the treatment of MHE and better tolerated.

Keywords

Minimal hepatic encephalopathy, ICT, PHES, Indians, Lactulose, Rifaximin

 

 

 

Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology 2019 vol. 7, 304-312  [ Html ] [ PDF Full-text ]

© The Authors 2019. This article is published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial License (CC BY-NC 4.0), which permits use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and is otherwise in compliance with the license.

 

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